Контрольная работа «Вариант 6 ХГАЭИП»

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Год 2015
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Содержание I. Read and translate the text. 1. Planned economies are sometimes called «command economies» because the state commands the use of resources (such as labour and factories) that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. 2. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions, the government decides production and consumption. 3. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. 4. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features. 5. Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. 6. It usually plans five years ahead. 7. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all. 8. Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industries and factory is set a production target to meet. 9. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five — year plans. 10. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives which, if met, allow the nation’s overall aim to be reached. 11. A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate. It does, however, have a number of advantages: everyone in society reserves enough goods and services to enjoy a basic standard of living. 12. Nations do not waste resources duplicating production. 13. The state can use its control of the economy to divert resources to wherever it wants. As a result, it can ensure that everyone receives a good education, proper health care or that transport is available. 14. Several disadvantages also exist. 15. It is these disadvantages that have led to many nations abandoning planned economies over recent years. 16. There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies. 17. Any profits that are made are paid to the government. 18. Citizens cannot start their own businesses and so new ideas rarely come forward. 19. As a result, industries in planned economies can be every inefficient. 20. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people’s tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to under produce some items, as they cannot predict changes in demand. 21. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced. 22. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products. Mixed economies 23. Command and market economies both have significant faults. 24. Partly because of this, an intermediate system has developed, known as mixed economies. 25. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. 26. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise. 27. Сonsiderable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. 28. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. 29. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. 30. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies. 31. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. 32. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. 33. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defense, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products. 34. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defense) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services. II. Найдите русские эквиваленты use of resources command economies produce goods and services central planning and direction take all the decisions production and consumption common features basic standard of living duplicating production delays and queues substantial amounts to underproduce to overproduce an overall aim disadvantages health care and defense to enjoy the benefits to solve economic problems to exercise considerable economic reedom of choice state — controlled industry a major problem faced by command or planned economies III. Найдите английские эквиваленты: имеющиеся в распоряжении ресурсы управлять использованием ресурсов управление экономикой отказываться от плановой экономики иметь высокий жизненный уровень иметь общие черты подчиняться 5 — летнему плану значительное количество ставить производственные задачи полученная прибыль стимул к эффективной работе перебои и очереди реагировать на изменения спроса предсказывать изменения спроса основная проблема, стоящая перед..избегать недостатков частный сектор налогообложение централизованно принимать экономические решения на одном полюсе – на другом без ограничений взаимодействовать в решении проблем пользоваться благами правительство, возглавляемое… IV. Заполните пропуски словами и выражениями из текста: 1. The type of system chosen is… in…, in which businesses operate. 2. An economic system is the way in which a country uses its… to satisfy the demands of… for goods and services. 3. The state, factories, land and…. 4. Planned economies are economies with… of…, when the government… all…, decides… and…. 5. The actual system employed… from state to state, but command or planned economies have…. 6. It is… that there should be enough goods and services for all. 7. Nations do not waste resources …. 8. Command and market economies both have …. 9. … contains elements of both market and planned economies. 10. … we have a command economy, which does not …, …we have a free market, where individuals… without…. 11. Some countries arc… to command economies, while others are… to free market economies. 12. It is just… between market and planned element that… in all the economies of the world. 13. The aim of mixed economies is… the disadvantages of both system while… the benefits that they both offer. V. Ответьте на вопросы: 1. Что такое экономическая система? 2. Отчего зависит уровень жизни? 3. Что такое плановая экономика?. Каковы основные черты плановой экономики? 5. Каковы преимущества плановой экономики? 6. Каковы недостатки плановой экономики? 7. Что вызывает перебои с товаром и очереди? 8. Каковы другие преимущества и недостатки плановой экономики?
Контрольная работа «Вариант 6 ХГАЭИП»
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